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|Title:||Evaporation of Sessile Droplets Laden with Particles and Insoluble Surfactants|
|Keywords:||Science & Technology;Physical Sciences;Technology;Chemistry, Multidisciplinary;Chemistry, Physical;Materials Science, Multidisciplinary;Chemistry;Materials Science;CONTACT LINE DEPOSITS;NANOFLUID DROPLETS;COFFEE-RINGS;DRYING DROPS;THIN-FILM;PATTERNS;WATER;FLOW;NANOPARTICLES;MONOLAYERS;Chemical Physics;MD Multidisciplinary|
|Publisher:||American Chemical Society|
|place:||Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)|
|Description:||We consider the flow dynamics of a thin evaporating droplet in the presence of an insoluble surfactant and noninteracting particles in the bulk. On the basis of lubrication theory, we derive a set of evolution equations for the film height, the interfacial surfactant, and bulk particle concentrations, taking into account the dependence of liquid viscosity on the local particle concentration. An important ingredient of our model is that it takes into account the fact that the surfactant adsorbed at the interface hinders evaporation. We perform a parametric study to investigate how the presence of surfactants affects the evaporation process as well as the flow dynamics with and without the presence of particles in the bulk. Our numerical calculations show that the droplet lifetime is affected significantly by the balance between the ability of the surfactant to enhance spreading, suppressing the effect of thermal Marangoni stresses-induced motion, and to hinder the evaporation flux through the reduction of the effective interfacial area of evaporation, which tend to accelerate and decelerate the evaporation process, respectively. For particle-laden droplets and in the case of dilute solutions, the droplet lifetime is found to be weakly dependent on the initial particle concentration. We also show that the particle deposition patterns are influenced strongly by the direct effect of the surfactant on the evaporative flux; in certain cases, the "coffee-stain" effect is enhanced significantly. A discussion of the delicate interplay between the effects of capillary pressure and solutal and thermal Marangoni stresses, which drive the liquid flow inside of the evaporating droplet giving rise to the observed results, is provided herein.|
|Type Of Material:||Other|
|Appears in Collections:||Faculty of Engineering|
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